Do You Use a Wood’s Lamp in Your Health Room?

I want to preface this post with the caveat that as registered nurses we are not able to diagnose any condition but we can perform our examination and give recommendations as to what we believe the issue might be. The students would always have to follow up with a doctor or nurse practitioner for diagnosis and treatment.

A Wood’s Lamp is an ultraviolet light or “blacklight” that comes in many sizes and shapes and can be used to check for certain skin conditions, head lice, or corneal abrasion (which we would not be doing at school as that is a procedure to be performed by a doctor). The Wood’s lamp was invented in 1903 by physicist Robert Wood. It was used starting in 1925 to diagnose fungal infections in the hair and has found practical use ever since. It is frequently used by estheticians and dermatologists to examine skin and skin conditions.

What would we use the Wood’s lamp for in the health room?

Head lice/nits: live nits (lice eggs) will glow white under the woods lamp. empty nit cases will glow grayish. This can help determine if the student is suffering from dry skin or hair product flakes (will not glow under the lamp), or if the white spots in the hair are nits. Live lice can be seen without the light but will also glow.

Ringworm and Tinea Capitis (ringworm on the scalp), Pityriasis Versicolor or Tinea Versicolor (fungal skin infection) and other fungal skin infections: While it seems fairly obvious what ringworm looks like through the naked eye (red circle, clear in the center, maybe flaky), the Wood’s lamp can help confirm that the student needs to cover the area and see a doctor as soon as possible. This fungal infection on the skin would glow bright blue-white or yellow-green under the lamp. While it might be beneficial to know ringworm vs other fungal infections, again, we can’t diagnose so a generic “likely fungal, need doctor to evaluate and treat” is sufficient. No need for specific diagnoses.

Scabies: Will fluoresce under woods lamp. No diagnosis can be made but strong suspicion can be suggested and recommend seeing doctor for evaluation and treatment.

Bruises: Bruises don’t glow but you can see the demarcation of the bruise and often get a better idea of the shape and size under the lamp if needed. Honestly, I would be unlikely to be examining a bruise that closely in a school health room setting. If anything, I would be using this knowledge to determine something like if it is a bruise or if it is a stain on the skin.

Urine: Glows yellow/green under the blacklight. Again, I would be unlikely to be determining urine stains vs other fluid stains in a school health room setting but the need for this knowledge could come up for some reason.

Germs: a blacklight or a Wood’s lamp can show poorly or unwashed hands! A great educational tool for students to show the importance of washing hands and how germs are spread.

A Wood’s Lamp can also show a corneal abrasion with the use of Fluorescence strips, however, a school nurse can not perform that examination and would require a doctor, PA, or NP to perform, diagnose, and treat.

Procedure:

  • Have the client position themselves comfortably.
  • Explain to the client that the Wood’s light has the same characteristics as a typical black light; the room will be darkened, and the black light will be turned on to examine for fluorescence of the lesion in question.
  • Have all lights turned off.
  • Ideally with a real Wood’s Lamp (as opposed to a blacklight) the lamp should warm up for approximately 1 minute before using to have the best visualization.
  • Hold the Wood’s light approximately 6 to 8 inches from the lesion in question, and observe the characteristics of the fluorescence of the lesion.

Where can you get your own Wood’s Lamp?

I got a little rechargeable one from Amazon found here (click the picture to link to the product):

Amazon also has many options or battery powered, corded, or rechargeable lithium ion battery. (Click the pictures for links to the products):

If you buy your supplies for SchoolHealth.com you can try some of these options also:

TL/DR

  • Woods Lamp can look for conditions such as ringworm, other fungal skin infections, lice, scabies, bruises, urine, and clean hands, among other concerns.
  • School nurses can not diagnose any conditions but this is a helpful tool for us to point a parent in the right direction if needed.

Sources:

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1365-4362.1999.00794.x#:~:text=Wood’s%20lamp%20was%20invented%20in,in%20the%20practice%20of%20medicine.

https://www.healthline.com/health/woods-lamp-examination

https://www.verywellhealth.com/what-is-woods-lamp-examination-5212402

https://www.usamedicalsurgical.com/blog/top-9-medical-diagnostic-applications-woods-lamp/

http://www.djj.state.ga.us/Policies/DJJPolicies/Chapter11/Attachments/DJJ11.30AttachmentF.pdf

https://www.statpearls.com/ArticleLibrary/viewarticle/31386

file:///C:/Users/Teacher/Downloads/Superficial_Fungal_Infections.pdf

https://www.alphatechpet.com/blog/importance-of-hand-hygiene-in-infection-control-at-an-animal-facility.aspx

https://thenurseszone.com/woods-light-examination/

Is BMI Actually a Useful Tool in Determining Health Status of Children?

School nurses have long been using the BMI (Body Mass Index) scale to determine risk for childhood obesity. Each year we check heights and weights of our students and then send home a letter to parents reporting that their child is over or under weight based on the BMI scale. But is this really the right thing to be doing based on current evidence based research? Personally, I think not.

What is BMI? Body mass Index, or BMI is a supposed measure of a person’s percentage of total fat mass or percentage of body fat. It is an equation based on a person’s height and weight that determines a person’s level of body weight related health.

Some history of the BMI scale: It was a (flawed, somewhat nonsensical) mathematical equation invented in the early 1800’s by a mathematician named Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet as a way of determining the “fatness or fitness” of a collective population of males (not an individual or female). The formula, BMI=k/m2, made little sense from the beginning. Why did we have to square the height in meters but not the weight? No one knows. It also didn’t take into account lean muscle vs body fat, waist size, or bone density. It became a frequently used tool in the 1970’s and forward by doctors as a measure of an individual’s weight related health status as it was easier to use than the other methods such as skin fold caliper testing and underwater weight displacement testing despite the fact that it was not meant for individual statistic analysis nor did it have any basis in actual health. So basically some guy with no health background, albeit very intelligent, made up an equation to evaluate statistics of a health issue and we have just run with it for literal centuries out of convenience.

So why should we change this practice? As mentioned, the BMI does not take into account lean muscle, waist size or bone density vs body fat. As most of us know, muscle and bone are more dense than fat therefore a person with more muscle mass or bone mass is bound to have a higher overall weight. A person could have low body fat, lots of lean muscle and bone tissue and still fall into an “obese” category according to BMI. It’s not measuring the fat percentage of the person, only the weight to height ratio which isn’t helpful in this setting. We’ve all had plenty of students who come up as “obese” when we can see that they are solid muscle. A 17 year old football player who is 6’4″ and 250 lbs. and works out every single day might be a brick wall of solid muscle but according to BMI he is obese and must make changes to their health habits. This is obviously not an accurate assessment.

Should we continue to be concerned about students being over and underweight? Absolutely yes. Depending on the reason for the weight (fat) gain of the person, they aren’t always “unhealthy” however, chronic obesity can lead to diabetes, heart disease, lung disease, cardiovascular issues, infertility, pregnancy and childbirth complications, arthritis, sleep apnea (which can be deadly!), body pain, fatigue, surgical complications, and anxiety and depression, and bullying. As school nurses we are also aware of the fact that a student who is gaining weight rapidly may have some social issues at home going on like abuse or neglect, food insecurity, eating disorder, or mental health issues that would also need to be addressed.

The effects of being chronically underweight are also numerous including anemias, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, infertility, pregnancy and childbirth complications, surgical complications, growth and development issues – especially in developing children, fatigue, hair loss, poor immune system thus frequent illness, or poor learning. Weight loss or a child who is severely underweight can also be a sign of other health issues that need to be evaluated such as many cancers, HIV, eating disorders or other psychiatric issues, abuse or neglect, poverty and food insecurity, or even drug use.

We absolutely need to continue monitoring the height and weight of students and comparing to previous measurements so we are able to notice if there is an issue happening that should be addressed.

What are some reasons that it would be difficult to change this practice? BMI is still used by the CDC and WHO as the best assessment tool (despite the known fact that it is not actually best practice). It is also tied to Medicaid billing which is tied to school districts receiving funding for health services. I believe that this can be changed though if the powers that be are all on board with managing this in a different more evidence based way.

What should we do instead of using BMI? The BVI (body volume index) is a slightly different method of determining body fat percentage but unfortunately not possible for school nurses to do as it deals with water displacement measurements. You can see more about how this works here.

The University of Alabama reports that studies using the Tri-ponderal Mass Index (TMI) give a more accurate estimation of body fat percentage in children ages 8 years to 17 years. It is a similar formula to BMI but it cubes the height instead of squaring the height. More studies are needed to determine accuracy in varying ethnicities and age groups. University of Alabama Study Journal of Pediatrics article.

RFM (relative fat mass index). This is a method of using tape measure measurements to measure the distance around the waist in comparison to height of the patient. This does not rely on weight at all. This can absolutely be done in a school setting. I would want to do it with one student at a time privately. As with all of the methods, this would also require educating the students about why we are doing it and what it means as we are being slightly invasive (ie: touching their body). Relative Fat Mass is a better measurement of body fat percentage than Body mass Index. To perform this assessment you will measure around the waist then measure your height and divide waist measurement by height measurement. A normal result should be approximately 0.5 or lower.

These results can be incorrect however when it comes to younger children or the elderly therefore not necessarily a good option for elementary school. This is possibly not the best method to use in a school setting due to the aforementioned inconsistencies for younger children and also it may be embarrassing or too invasive for the student.

Skin fold Calipers is another way to measure body fat. This is a tool that you use to gently pinch the skin folds in certain areas of the body and it has a measurement that tells the percentage of fat. You need to take a measurement from a number of different specified areas and then do the equation to figure out body fat percentage. Many of the calipers come with a chart to help you figure out the numbers. Personally I find this to be both invasive to the student and embarrassing for them to have someone “pinching their fat” then talking about it so I wouldn’t want to do this. I know I would be mortified if they wanted to do this to me at school.

BIA (Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis): this is a great method that is performed using a machine that can measure body composition including body fat, lean muscle, and water content of the body. The handheld machine sends an undetectable electrical current through the body which slows based on what kid of tissue it is going through therefore it can easily measure adipose, water, and lean muscle. It can be done using a simple handheld machine, or even many scales come equipped to measure this information. These machines can be purchased for anywhere from $40 – $300+ on Amazon and are very simple to use. According to research, BIA can be accurately used in children 8 years old to 20 years old. This would be an excellent alternative to using BMI in school if the district has the budget to purchase these machines.

Growth chart tracking without the BMI component. Just as they do at the pediatrician, Students heights and weights can be plotted on a growth chart for a visual picture of increased or decreased weight. We always said at the pediatrician that we don’t care what percentile the child is in (because that is BMI) but we are interested in seeing if they are following a curve appropriately. Are they dropping drastically or going up drastically? It gives us a picture of which students need to be addressed for unexpected weight gain or loss. This wont give a picture of fat percentage or overall health but then neither does calculating a BMI. This would be a simple, noninvasive, reasonable method in a school setting for evaluating a student’s weight.

Link to CDC growth charts: https://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/clinical_charts.htm#Set2

  • Financial responsibilities for making these changes:
  • BIA machine: $40
  • Converting BMI setting in computerized charting system to reflect changes.
  • Training nurses to use BIA machine and documentation of new procedure: 1-2 hours salary
  • Measuring tapes: $10

TL/DR

  • BMI is an outdated tool that does not benefit us as much as previously thought.
  • Alternatives to using BMI may include Relative Fat Mass Index (RFI), skin fold calipers, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), growth chart tracking (without BMI component).
  • Tracking weight/growth in students is important to continue to do in order to prevent or manage weight related health issues and/or monitor for concerns such as abuse, neglect, or mental health issues.
  • This is a difficult issue to reform as CDC and WHO continue to use BMI and it is also linked to Medicaid reimbursement for school funding.

What do you think as a school nurse? Should we fight to change this practice and go with evidence based research or leave it be?

sources used:

https://biography.yourdictionary.com/lambert-adolphe-jacques-quetelet

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=106268439#:~:text=The%20BMI%20was%20introduced%20in,the%20government%20in%20allocating%20resources.

https://www.sciencealert.com/new-accurate-rfm-body-fat-measure-could-end-bmi-body-mass-index

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5559202/

https://www.livestrong.com/article/288241-how-to-calculate-your-total-body-volume/

https://www.health.pa.gov/topics/school/Pages/Growth-Screen.aspx

https://www.health.pa.gov/topics/school/Pages/SHARRS.aspx

https://www.uab.edu/news/health/item/8313-better-than-bmi-study-finds-more-accurate-way-to-determine-adolescent-obesity

What’s the deal with privacy laws and school health services?

I’ve seen some chatter recently about school staff and the dissemination of student health information – specifically what staff are allowed to say to students in relation to health issues and what the nurse is allowed to say to staff about students’ health issues.

Situation #1: The school nurse has a student in the health room. A staff member walks by and sees them and comes in to say “Hey, Student, what’s wrong??” and comes in and maybe feels a forehead, asks follow up questions like “did you tell your mom this morning?” or “did the nurse call your parents to come pick you up?” or “did you try x-y-z to fix the problem?” What’s a school nurse to do? Do you allow or encourage the chit-chat? Do you get offended because I’M the nurse? Do you give a dismissive response to end the interaction?

Situation #2: The nurse receives health forms for a student that indicate serious health concerns that affect the student’s day to day time at school such as epilepsy. The student requires the use of a safety helmet, receives medications, and has frequent grand-mal seizures at school. This requires health information to be shared with multiple members of the school team. How is this information disseminated and to whom? What information is divulged?

A reoccurring theme I’ve seen is “That’s against HIPAA to tell anyone anything!” Well it’s not.

What is HIPAA? HIPAA stands for Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Per the US Department of health & Human Services, HIPAA is defined as “The HIPAA Privacy Rule establishes national standards to protect individuals’ medical records and other individually identifiable health information (collectively defined as “protected health information”) and applies to health plans, health care clearinghouses, and those health care providers that conduct certain health care transactions electronically. The Rule requires appropriate safeguards to protect the privacy of protected health information and sets limits and conditions on the uses and disclosures that may be made of such information without an individual’s authorization. The Rule also gives individuals rights over their protected health information, including rights to examine and obtain a copy of their health records, to direct a covered entity to transmit to a third party an electronic copy of their protected health information in an electronic health record, and to request corrections.” In short, healthcare entities (and the employees within) can not share protected health information including patient identifying information in relation to the health information with anyone that is not in a position of need-to-know.

Those who work in hospitals and doctor’s offices are well aware of the issue of staff discussing patient information in public places (chatting about your crazy patient while having lunch in the caf), staff looking up patient information in the computer systems that they don’t have permission to access (like looking up your neighbor’s lab results), or posting anything to social media that would reveal a patients identity in relation to their healthcare. We also of course know that we don’t discuss patient issues with people outside their care team.

All that being said, does this also apply to school nurses maintaining the medical privacy of students in the health room? Sort of but no. Yes a student’s privacy should be maintained as much as possible and yes their medical information should be disseminated on a need-to-know basis but sometimes a large portion of the staff is considered “need-to-know”, especially as it relates to serious medical issues that can affect many teachers, classes, and staff members. The information doesn’t need to be broadcast to the entire school – parents and all but it does need to be told to any staff that is interacting with that student.

The answer is also no because HIPAA privacy rules exclude information considered educational records which includes school health room information. Educational records are covered under FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act). It works the same though – basically personally identifying educational records of a student including health room records and information should have privacy maintained under FERPA. You can read more here: https://studentprivacycompass.org/covid-19faqs/

However, the answer is YES when it applies to private schools that do not receive federal funding. When it comes to an institution that does not receive federal funding the privacy laws become a gray area between HIPAA, FERPA, and no privacy laws. The HIPAA law might come into play when it relates to the school nurse specifically if they are providing healthcare to the student however, the school nurse is not providing health insurance managed medical care or billing for services. In this case I would think that the nurse would have to use their good judgement and refer to the HIPAA and FERPA laws to decide what they think is best.

In a case such as scenario #1, a staff member comes to the health room and starts asking the student questions. Is it appropriate? Probably not. But is it illegal? No. The patient is allowed to say anything they want to anyone they want about their own health. Most staff members who are coming in and asking a kid what’s wrong likely know the student already and are doing so because they care. Many times they are in “mommy mode” and just being a person. They are generally not trying to “do your job” or intrude (unless they are but that’s a different issue). You don’t have to tell their business to everyone but you can allow the student to tell what’s wrong if they want to. You can even say that to the student – “you don’t have to talk if you don’t want to”. What would be considered illegal is if the nurse then began explaining the issue to the staff member who is only asking out of curiosity. Use your judgement in what you want to say.

I frequently have staff members telling me that they aren’t totally sure what they are allowed to say health-wise and what they aren’t. According to Frontline Educational Services, “FERPA does not require written consent when “school officials” with “legitimate educational interest” review student records. Such access does not require prior notice to parents or guardians, other than the usual, annual FERPA notice provided by schools.” This means that the teachers, paras, and other school staff that have a genuine educational need to know health or educational information about the student are allowed to know/ask about it. If the staff’s only interest in the student’s health is curiosity then it is technically illegal for them to ask or be told about the student’s health status. That being said, the teacher and related staff members are absolutely allowed to ask parents or be told about a student’s history of asthma, allergies, seizures, etc. as it relates to their education in their class. It’s important to note that while they have the right to know the information, they do not have the right to suggest treatments or management of anything.

The area that this comes into question relating to teachers is when it comes to ADHD and ADHD medications. While there are no laws stating that a teacher can’t suggest a student be evaluated or medicated for ADHD, it is in very poor taste and can be construed as discrimination if that subject is broached inappropriately. This should be addressed through the Special Education team. You can read more about this issue here: https://www.understood.org/articles/en/can-a-school-make-medication-a-requirement-for-my-child-to-attend

This information applies in the case of scenario #2. The teachers and related staff need to be aware of the student’s seizures and information surrounding that issue in order to appropriately care for the student should a seizure happen at school. This information should be shared with anyone who is directly working with that student including PE, paras, admins, subs, and specials teachers.

Scenario #3: The school nurse needs some specific medication orders from a doctor’s office. Should they ask the parent and have the parent ask the doctor’s office OR should they cut out the middle man and call the doctor’s office themselves and request the information. The school nurse is allowed to call the doctor’s office themselves. The doctor is permitted to share the information with the school nurse for health maintenance purposes. Some offices might ask for a parent to sign a release and that’s fine if that is their policy. Personally I always ask the parent’s permission first – that way I can verify what doctor I should be calling.

At the end of the day, just be nice. There is no need for being defensive or snippy if someone asks about a student. You can just let them know politely “they are sick” or “we are all good now” if someone asks. If you wanted to you could just ask the student if they want to explain or not and then leave it at that.

TL/DR:

  • FERPA applies to educational records including health room information
  • HIPAA applies to specific medical institutions that are billing for services such as hospitals and doctor’s offices, not school health rooms.
  • If someone needs to know medical information about a student because they have an educational interest in that student (their teachers, paras, etc.) you can tell them all the stuff.
  • If someone is just curious then you don’t tell them anything but the student can tell them anything they want.
  • Teachers can ask/ be told about student’s health issues but they can not suggest any treatments.
  • Teachers should not discuss ADHD and ADHD medications with parents as it can be construed as discrimination. Refer to the SEL for that issue.
  • Be nice.

Cherokee Women’s V Neck Scrubs Shirt

Seizures at School: What the School Nurse Needs to Know

Check out links at the bottom for 504 plan info and more helpful forms for seizure disorders!

When I was a kid I remember a guy at school who had seizures. It was a whole big thing – we were out at recess and he had a grand mal seizure while playing soccer. I was too young to remember what happened after that initial seizure: did they call 911? Did they roll him over? All I remember is that he was the only kid I ever knew growing up who had seizures and he continued well into adulthood (still has them last I heard). My daughter knew one girl in school who took medications for seizures and learned all about them from her. When she moved on to college she had a friend on her dorm floor who would have frequent seizures and because she is the child of a nurse and also well versed in seizure management she was able to take charge when no one else knew what to do in their first few months of college away from home.

What does it mean to have a seizure disorder and how can we help manage that at school? A seizure is basically a disruption of the electrical signals in the brain. They come in many forms that you may have heard of such as absence (aka petite mal), tonic-clonic (aka grand mal). The two main ones that we see most frequently are:

Absence seizure: Also known as petite-mal seizure, a type of generalized seizure that affects both sides of the brain. The patient is unaware of what is happening. They tend to “zone out” for a period of time (like 20-30 seconds) and may stare, smack lips, or have fluttering eyelids. Afterwards they generally do not have a postictal state but don’t remember what was happening during the seizure. These happen in children ages 4-14 but have been seen in younger children also. They are often outgrown but until they outgrow it they are treated with medication to prevent worsening symptoms.

When a person has an absence seizure there isn’t really anything to do during it as often you may not notice that it started or stopped and they don’t generally have any symptoms afterward. If you see that they are having a seizure just keep an eye on them that they don’t progress into anything further like a tonic-clonic.

Generalized tonic-clonic: Also known as a grand mal seizure, this is what most people think of when they think of a seizure. The person will be unconscious, with shaking or jerking limbs and very stiff muscles. The patient can become injured from the jerking activity or from falling with the seizure or can often bite their tongue or lips during it. This person may lose control of bladder and/or bowels or vomit during their seizure. They are likely to have a postictal state that can last a few minutes or a few hours where they will be super tired or maybe have a headache. Often those who have been dealing with seizures for a long time can have an “aura” prior to the seizure that alerts them to it occurring. The aura can consist of things like smelling a specific smell, flashing lights that aren’t there, feeling of impending doom (sudden fear of something bad is happening), or general nausea.

When it is noted that a person is having a tonic-clonic seizure the first thing to do is start timing it. Note the exact time it started if you can. Generally, if the seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes you should be administering emergency meds and calling 911. Then you want to be sure to protect their head to prevent any further injuries. This just means placing a pillow or clothing or something underneath their head so they don’t hit the floor or any objects. Try and move anything out of the way that could injure them if you can but do NOT try to hold them down. Roll them on their side in case they vomit so they don’t aspirate on the vomit. Never put anything in their mouth to prevent tongue biting – that’s an old wives tale that you should place a spoon or a bite block in their mouth to prevent them from “swallowing their tongue” (that’s not a thing – it’s physically impossible.)

  • Other types of seizures include:
  • Focal Aware Seizure: Exactly what the name implies: a partial focal seizure that the patient is awake and aware but perhaps frozen and can’t move. Lasts around 2 minutes.
  • Focal Impaired Awareness Seizure: A psychomotor seizure or a temporal seizure, similar to the focal aware but the patient has decreased awareness of the episode.
  • Atypical Absence Seizure: Patient is not fully aware, may stop talking and stare, blink, moving lips. Lasts 5-30 seconds, often goes unnoticed.
  • Atonic Seizure: “Drop seizure”, patient becomes limp, can fall to the ground. Generally lasts less than 15 seconds. These patients often require safety helmets to prevent head injuries from unexpected falls.
  • Clonic Seizure: Patient is unaware, may have jerking motions of limbs. They are rare and mostly happen in babies.
  • Tonic Seizure: The patient suddenly stiffens ie: muscle TONE increases. Lasts about 20 seconds, patient may be aware or somewhat aware during this.
  • Myoclonic Seizure: Brief shock like jerks or twitching of a muscle group. They last generally a few seconds, very hard to notice often.
  • Gelastic and Dacrystic Seizure: Gelastic can cause uncontrolled laughing or giggling, often called “laughing seizures”. Dacrystic is a “crying seizure” The patient is aware but can not control the emotional episode.
  • Febrile Seizure: a seizure that occurs in children ages 3 months to around 6 years old when they have a high fever. These can often be full body convulsions lasting less than 15 minutes. They occur in 2% – 5% of children and can also run in families. They can not be treated with lukewarm baths or Tylenol and do not require daily medication. The patient may be prescribed a rescue medication like Diazepam for a seizure that lasts longer than 5 minutes.
  • Refractory seizure: Seizures of any kind that are not controlled or easily controlled with medication therapy. Even with medications the seizures are frequent and sever enough that they interfere with every day life.
  • Status Epilepticus: When a seizure does not stop by 5 minutes or more than 1 seizure within the 5 minute period without returning to normal level of consciousness between events. This is a medical emergency and needs immediate medical attention as it can lead to brain damage.

Common Medications: Most patients with seizure disorders are treated with a daily maintenance medication. It is important for the school nurse to know the dosages and time of day each medication is taken in case the patient is transported to the hospital. These are generally dosed by weight and a change in weight, even a minor change, can make a huge difference in side effects and efficacy. A lot of these medications can cause drowsiness, headaches, behavior or mood changes, or weakness. Often once the person has become regulated to the dosage they have less side effects but the nurse should be aware that these side effects are a possibility when changing doses or meds. These are some of the more common ones you might see used but there are many.

Emergency rescue medications: Medications used to stop a seizure. If a student has a known seizure disorder it is wise to have an emergency medication on hand for them in case of emergency. Check your state laws regarding who is able to administer emergency meds aside from the nurse.

It is very important to know how and when to use the rescue med for a seizure. *Generally* if a seizure is lasting longer then 5 minutes you will use the rescue med and call 911. Check the doctor’s orders for the medication and create an action plan with all the information for the individual student.

  • Other treatments for seizure disorders
  • Vagus Nerve Stimulator (VNS): an implantable device similar to a pacemaker that stimulates the vagus nerve. This device can reduce amount of seizures, shorten length of seizures and also stop an acute seizure. If a patient is having an acute seizure the device has a magnet that can be swiped over it to cause it to send a stronger signal to the brain to try and stop the seizure.
  • Ketogenic diet: You may have heard of this revolutionary weight loss diet “Keto”. It was actually invented specifically to treat people with epilepsy and diabetes. It is a high fat low carb diet that causes the body to burn fats instead of sugars creating ketones in the body. They aren’t sure why it works but something about the ketones affects the brain’s functioning and lowers seizure frequency. There are risks to using this diet and it should be supervised by the doctor to be sure the patient is receiving the appropriate nutrients.

For my students with seizure disorders I keep a binder with each student’s information separated with dividers. I include a log to track their seizures at school, their action plan, their 504 information, and report sheets in case of calling 911. This way we have everything in one place to document and keep track.

Seizure Disorder 504 Information. In the interest of not reinventing the wheel, these accommodations are borrowed directly from the Epilepsy Foundation

  • EXERCISE, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AND REST PERIODS:
  • Physical education instructors and sports coaches must be able to recognize the
    student’s seizures and assist with first aid.
  • Responsible school staff members will make sure that any needed emergency AEDs
    such as Diastat are available for student at the site of his/her physical
    education class and team sports practices/games.
  • School staff shall ensure that if student has a seizure and needs to sleep or
    rest afterwards or otherwise needs to rest during the school day, he or she will have the
    opportunity to do so in a safe, supervised, comfortable setting. The setting does not have to be the school nurse’s office, and supervision does not have to be provided by the school nurse, unless physician orders so require.
  • Student will be permitted/suggested to wear safety helmet if prescribed by physician.
  • KETOGENIC DIET
  • Student shall have access to needed food and liquids as required
    during the school day in order to maintain the protocol of the ketogenic diet.
  • Student parent/guardian shall provide pre-measured supplies of food
    and liquid to the school on a daily basis.
  • School staff who work with student shall be trained regarding the
    ketogenic diet so that violations of the diet do not occur at school.
  • As appropriate, classmates of student shall be given information about
    the ketogenic diet so that they do not share food with him/her.
  • As appropriate, during class parties or celebrations with food, alternatives shall
    be arranged for student that enable him/her to partake in the
    celebration if s/he will be unable to eat or drink during the party time. Such
    alternatives may include, but are not limited to, playing a special role in the
    celebration, choosing music for the party, or being the “emcee.”

  • VAGUS NERVE STIMULATOR
  • School staff who work with student shall be trained regarding the
    vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) and how it works.
  • A staff person shall be identified who shall be trained to swipe the magnet over
  • the VNS in the event that student has a seizure, as stated in the attached Seizure Action Plan.
  • A log shall be kept of each instance in which the VNS is swiped and the parents shall be notified at the end of each school day in which a swipe occurred.
  • ROUTINE ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS AND DIASTAT ACUDIAL
  • As stated in the attached Seizure Action Plan, student shall be given his/her prescribed doses of AEDs in accordance with physician orders.
  • School staff shall identify a person and a back-up person to be trained to administer Diastat or other appropriate emergency AEDs to student in accordance with physician orders, as stated in the attached Seizure Action Plan. A trained staff member shall be available to perform this task all times during which student is at school or attending a school-related activity or event.
  • FIELD TRIPS AND EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
  • Student will participate in all field trips, extracurricular activities, and school-related activities and events (such as sports, clubs, enrichment programs, and overnight trips) without restriction and with all of the accommodations and modifications, including necessary assistance and supervision by identified school or contract personnel, set out in this Plan.
  • Student’s parent/guardian will not be required to accompany him/her on field trips or any of these other listed events or activities.
  • A trained person shall be designated to be available on site at all field trips, extracurricular activities, and other school-related activities and events to provide administration of any necessary medication in the event of a seizure, or any other seizure first aid as needed.
  • The student’s AEDs will travel with the student to any field trip or extracurricular activity on or away from the school premises
  • CLASSROOM WORK AND TESTS
  • If student has a seizure during a test, he or she will be allowed to take the test at another time without any penalty.
  • If student has side effects from AEDs that affect his/her ability to concentrate on schoolwork or tests, s/he may have extra time to complete assignments and tests without any penalty.
  • If student arrives to school late because of an adjusted start time due to the need to wake up later to avoid morning seizures, s/he will not be penalized for work missed and will be given an opportunity to make up the work.
  • Student shall be given instruction without penalty to help him/her make up any classroom instruction missed due to epilepsy care.
  • Student shall not be penalized for absences required for medical appointments and/or for illness related to his/her epilepsy.
  • DAILY INSTRUCTIONS AND COMMUNICATION
  • Every substitute teacher and substitute school nurse shall be provided with written instructions regarding student seizure care and a list of all school nurses and staff involved in his/her care at the school.
  • Student’s parents shall be informed each day of any seizures that occurred at school or at any school-related activity or event. The information given to the parents shall be in writing and shall include information about the type(s) of seizures that occurred, any first aid or other treatment provided, and any other relevant information.
  • As stated in the attached Seizure Action Plan, in the event of an emergency such as a seizure that results in an unusual response, school staff shall contact 911 and notify student’s parents.
  • EMERGENCY EVACUATION AND SHELTER-IN-PLACE
  • In the event of an emergency evacuation or shelter-in-place situation, student’s Section 504 Plan shall remain in full force and effect.
  • The school nurse or other person identified by school staff and named in this
    Plan, shall provide seizure care as outlined in this Plan and will be responsible
    for transporting student’s medication. He or she shall remain in contact
    with student’s parents/guardians, and shall receive information,
    guidance, and necessary orders from the parents regarding seizure care.

Visit Diary of a School Nurse for tons of info about seizures and links to helpful forms and charts like this Teacher Tips for grand mal seizures and others.

Visit Your Favorite School Nurse on Teachers Pay Teachers and check out the bundle of seizure forms including an activity log, EMS report sheet, Action plan, and suggested 504 accommodations.

Sensory Glitter Jars

A while back someone had mentioned in a Facebook post about a student playing with her “glitter bottle” in her health room and it got me thinking about how much I love glitter, and what a cool idea it would be to get/make my own glitter bottles.

What is a “glitter bottle” or a “sensory jar” you ask? Sometimes also referred to as a “calm down jar”, it’s a toy that helps kids (and adults) settle their brain down a bit and refocus. You just get comfy and flip the jar around watching the glitter swirl and settle and float around while breathing in and out and focusing on the movement and sparkles. Sounds relaxing.

You can also use them as a sort of “time out timer” for little ones. They sit in their time out or rest area for the amount of time it takes for the glitter to fall and then hopefully feeling refreshed they can join the activity again. You can decide if it will be a fast or slow timer depending how much corn syrup you add.

Here are the details:

To begin you will need a clean bottle or jar. I bought these craft bottles from Amazon but the Voss water bottles are perfect for this. You can also use a Mason Jar as long as you have a water tight lid for it and you aren’t afraid of glass breaking. I tried using various glass bottles from Hobby Lobby but they didn’t work out so well for this project – too leaky.

Next you will need clear corn syrup. Some people also choose to use clear Elmer’s glue but I like the corn syrup the best – like this one Karo Syrup. I found my Karo Syrup in the cereal aisle at Walmart with the pancake syrup but you can also find it on Amazon.

Now the best part – you need glitter! You can pick color combinations and glitter sizes – I like a combo of small shaped glitter like stars and hearts, very fine glitter and some larger sequins of varying shapes so there is something interesting to look for in the bottle. I tried something that was larger glitter flakes but they didn’t react with the corn syrup very well so avoid those (they got too clumpy and ruined the whole jar). You can find some glitter options here.

Start by filling your bottle about halfway with corn syrup. It doesn’t have to be exact, there are no hard rules here.

Next add your glitter. You can decide how much you want but I used about a table spoon or less of a few different ones. If you finish and you feel like you want more glitter then you can open it up and add more later. You would be surprised at how a small amount spreads out! I also add the sequin shapes at this time – just a sprinkle or two so there’s something interesting floating around to look for.

Now you will add warm or hot water carefully on top of the glitter and corn syrup and fill almost to the top. Leave a space for air so the solution is able to move around and also some space in case you want to add more corn syrup or glitter. You should use distilled water for this to prevent mold from growing but it is not required. You can choose to use cool water instead of warm but the warm water mixes with the corn syrup faster.

Close the lid tightly but not so tight you cant get it off. Start inverting the bottle to mix all the ingredients together. Now you can decide if you’re happy with how the glitter is floating – if it is too watery then add more corn syrup and if it is too thick add more water. You can also top off the glitter now if you want to. Make sure there is a small space of air at the top (because physics).

Once satisfied with the ratios of glitter, corn syrup and water, carefully remove the lid, dry off the top of the bottle and the lid, and add some glue to the threads where the lid goes on, put the lid back on and seal it up.

And that’s it! I’m obsessed with playing with these things and am constantly shaking them up on my desk. While the kids are waiting for whatever reason in my office they enjoy flipping them around and looking for the shapes and watching the glitter swirl.

School Nursing: Education and Career Opportunities

school nurse checking temperature of young student at desk

School Nurse At a Glance

What you’ll do: Promote the physical well-being of students so they can succeed academically. School nurses conduct student assessments; administer first-aid, medication, and treatments; and educate students about their health.

Where you’ll work: K-12 public, private, vocational, and alternative schools; health departments, military bases, and community, state, and federal organizations

Degree you’ll need: Depending on state and school requirements, an Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) or a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN)

Median annual salary: $75,330


School nurses provide a bridge between students, parents, and teachers to address the physical, mental, emotional, and social health needs of students so they can thrive in the classroom.

In this Article


Steps to Become a School Nurse | Decide if this Career Is Right for You

Steps to Become a School Nurse

Use these steps as a guide to pursue a career as a school nurse.

smiling nurse walking on college campus

1: Find the Right School

There are many factors to consider when choosing a nursing school. While you’ll want to find a program with a location, cost, student-to-faculty ratio, and programming to meet your needs, you’ll also want to look for:

  • Accreditation: A degree from an accredited nursing school meets requirements for state nursing licenses and professional certifications. It also ensures that your credits are transferable to other accredited institutions toward advanced degrees and that your eligible for federal financial aid.
  • Job placement and career counseling: These services can help you set career goals, network, and find your first role.
  • Online programs: Many nursing programs offer online courses for the classroom-based portion of your education. This flexibility is important if you must work or juggle family responsibilities while you complete your education.
three nurses talking during training class

2: Choose a Degree

While you can be a school nurse with an Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) and a registered nurse (RN) license in some states, the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) recommends that schools hire nurses with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN). A BSN is also required to qualify for professional certification as a school nurse, though this credential isn’t always required for employment.

“The additional education is always beneficial so if one does not have a BSN, it is important to get one as most employers are requiring it for work anyway,” says Emily Hunter, BSN, RN, CSN, a certified school nurse and founder and author of Your Favorite School Nurse blog.

admission form being displayed on laptop computer

3: Apply to School

Admission requirements for BSN programs vary by school. If you already have an ADN, you may be able to reduce the time you’ll need to finish a BSN with an RN-to-BSN bridge program.

Depending on the BSN program you choose, you may have to meet some or all of the following admission requirements:

  • High school diploma or GED
  • Advanced math, biology, and chemistry prerequisites
  • Professional and/or academic recommendations
  • Personal statement of purpose
  • In-person or virtual interview
  • Standardized test scores from the SAT or ACT
  • Passing score on HESI Admission Assessment (A2) Exam
nurses in training class with lead nurse

4: Complete Your Coursework and Clinicals

A BSN includes advanced science coursework and helps nurses develop a broad skillset in patient-centered care, clinical judgment, physical assessments, leadership, and community—all critical to working as a school nurse.

As part of your nursing program, you’ll get hands-on training in nursing care through clinical hours in a healthcare setting. Clinical requirements can total 700 to 800 hours, though hours can vary widely by program.  

students taking the nclex rn exam online

5: Take the NCLEX-RN

After you graduate, you’ll need to obtain an RN license from your state board of nursing. To qualify, you must pass the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-RN) administered by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN). It will cost $200 to register for the exam.

The NCSBN offers a practice NCLEX-RN exam. You may also benefit from other types of test preparation, including review courses, flashcards, and/or study groups.

Here’s a general breakdown of what the exam covers.

  • Safe and Effective Care Environment
  • Health Promotion and Maintenance
  • Psychosocial Integrity
  • Physiological Integrity

The NCLEX-RN is a computerized test that you’ll have five hours to complete. Most of the questions are multiple-choice, with some fill-in-the-blank, multiple-response, and drag-and-drop-style questions.

The NCLEX is also “computer adaptive.” This means that the questions you receive are determined by your response to the previous question. If you answer a question incorrectly, the next question is slightly easier. If you answer correctly, your questions increase in difficulty. You continue to answer questions, from a minimum of 75 to a maximum of 265, until the computer determines your level of competence, or your time runs out.

In addition to passing the NCLEX-RN, you’ll need to meet any other state-specific criteria before you receive a license. These requirements may include:

  • Comprehensive background check
  • Fingerprinting
  • Photograph
  • Professional references
  • Proof of good moral character
  • Resolution of back payments for child support or other unfavorable marks on your records
team of nurses in on the job training

6: Gain Experience as a Nurse

While most schools don’t require nurses to have specific experience, working in a clinical environment could give you invaluable experience to bring to the role of school nurse.

“Many of us do come from hospitals and have experience in emergency, ICU, labor and delivery, home care, or peds,” says Hunter. “I think it is important to get a good handle on your skills in a more hands-on nursing position before doing this job.”

While you can strengthen your skills in many types of clinical settings, working in pediatrics can give you the best foundation for school nursing, Hunter says. “I worked as a medical assistant for 11 years in a pediatric primary care office and learned so much that I apply today to my job such as looking in ears, understanding rashes’ behavior, ADHD, disabilities, various childhood ailments, and understanding immunizations intimately.”

You’ll have many options for gaining clinical experience. Here are the top three employers of registered nurses, as reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS):

  • Hospitals: 61%
  • Ambulatory services, such as physicians’ offices and outpatient care centers: 18%
  • Nursing and residential care facilities: 6%
nurse interviewing with medical team leader

7: Become Eligible for Certification

The Nationally Certified School Nurse (NCSN) certification is an optional credential, but some states require it. Earning the certification is considered proof that you’ve demonstrated your competency to work as a school nurse based on established professional standards.

The National Board for Certification of School Nurses (NBCSN) administers the certification exam. To qualify, you must:

  • Have an academic transcript with proof of one of the following:
    • A bachelor’s degree or higher in nursing from an accredited program
    • A Master of Education (M.Ed.) with a concentration in school nursing or school health services from an accredited institution approved by the NBCSN
  • Have at least 1,000 hours of work experience in the last three years
  • Submit an application online within 30 days of the start of one of three annual test dates
  • Pay the $360 exam fee.
student studying for certification exam

8: Prepare for Certification

There are free and fee-based resources to help you prepare for the exam.

The NBCSN Handbook for Candidates is a great place to start. It will give you access to these free exam prep materials:

  • Test Prep Infographic, a guide that includes a roadmap for studying during the weeks before the exam
  • National Exam Candidates Discussion Group/Online Study Group
  • Challenge the School Nurse archived questions, which are similar to questions on the exam
  • Test Taking Techniques e-course from Nurse Builders

You may also find it worthwhile to purchase an online practice exam from NBCSN. Professional exam prep instructors and organizations also offer study books, online courses, and video or in-person review courses.

nurse working on laptop computer

9: Pass the Certification Exam

The four-hour exam is administered during two- to three-week periods at computer-based testing facilities across the U.S. and Canada.

NBCSN also offers remote proctoring, which allows you to take the exam at home. You’ll need a camera, microphone, and a quiet and well-lit room for this option.

The certification exam includes a maximum of 200 multiple-choice questions on these topics:

  • Health Appraisal—26%
  • Health Problems and Nursing Management—27%
  • Health Promotion/Disease Prevention—20%
  • Special Health Issues—14%
  • Professional Issues—13%
nurse holding clipboard with checklist

10: Meet State Requirements

Some states require certification to work as a school nurse, and states in general may have other requirements, such as:

  • A BSN
  • Current certification in basic life support (BLS)
  • Criminal record background check

You can check your state’s requirements on a database maintained by the National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE).

two nurses being welcomed as new employees by medical staff

11: Get a Job

Job opportunities in your local public schools could depend on local funding. School districts that have tight budgets and limited resources may have a higher student-to-school nurse ratio. As a result, nurses in these districts may be responsible for more students and perhaps more than one school.

Competition for jobs can vary by district. And if a school doesn’t have a nurse, it may be due to a lack of funding rather than a lack of qualified candidates.

If full-time opportunities aren’t immediately available, you may be able to gain experience in a part-time position, which some districts use to save money. Working at a boarding school, summer camp, or alternative school could be options as well.

nurse working on electronic tablet

12: Keep Certification Current

You’ll need to renew your NCSN credential every five years. To qualify for recertification, you’ll need to provide documentation of:

  • Current RN license
  • Employment as a school nurse or related position, including at least 2,000 hours of clinical practice in school nursing during the past five years, with at least 750 of those hours in the last three years
  • 75 approved hours of continuing education or professional activities
  • Payment of the $245 recertification fee
nurse in advanced training with medical staff

13: Advance Your Training

Earning certification doesn’t have to be the end of your education. There are many ways to expand your skills if you want to move up or into related roles.

If you take post-graduate coursework in school nursing after earning a BSN, you may be able to apply those credits toward a master’s in nursing, education, or public health. A graduate degree may be required for supervisory roles across school districts or larger geographical areas.

“We take classes to become a certified school nurse and then, for me, those credits counted toward my master’s degree in education: school health services,” says Hunter.

If you have a BSN, you’re also positioned to pursue specialty certifications that may boost your pay. For example, school nurses are typically required to have BLS certification, says Hunter. Becoming certified as a CPR instructor could open opportunities to train and certify school staff in CPR, which could mean higher pay, she says.

Decide if School Nursing Is Right for You

Like any new career journey, you’ll need to decide if school nursing is right for you. Talking to current school nurses and potentially shadowing them while they work is one way to get a firsthand perspective of the role before you invest time and money in training.

“I have found that this role is much like being an ER nurse in that you have often very little information and supplies and have to make do with what creativity you can come up with,” says Hunter. “You never know what’s going to come in your office—is it a bellyache because we hate math or is it a kid who punched glass and needs stitches? A pregnant teen or a kid that fell and maybe has a broken bone?”

In addition to being able to respond in any situation, it also helps to have certain personality traits. “I think the personal characteristics needed for this role would include organization skills, time management skills, and the ability to be flexible and adapt,” says Hunter. “You have to be able to see through some stories and get to the real issues at hand.”

What You’ll Do

While your role may vary depending on the size and type of school, here are some common responsibilities and duties of a school nurse:

  • Administer medication and treatment for chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, seizures, and sickle cell disease
  • Conduct annual vision, hearing, health, and mental health screenings
  • Oversee school infection control standards
  • Respond to health emergencies involving children and staff
  • Maintain student health records, including immunizations
  • Develop educational plans for students who need accommodations due to their ability to learn
  • Identify child abuse, bullying, and drug abuse
  • Connect students and families with social services related to healthcare, food, shelter, and other support

“School nursing can be extremely rewarding. There is so much more than giving out band-aids and ice packs—that’s the easy part!” says Hunter. “We have to be ER nurses, special ed teachers, mommies, counselors, and even teachers.”

Pros and Cons to a Career as a School Nurse

There are many reasons to pursue a career as a school nurse, including:

  • Regular work hours, generally 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. Monday through Friday
  • Opportunity to be home on snow days, holidays, and during summer break
  • Autonomy to do things your way since most school nurses work alone
  • Rewards of helping children in need
  • Potentially less stressful environment versus working in a hospital
  • Opportunity to make an impact and develop relationships with students

And as with any job, there also are challenges to being a school nurse:

  • Potentially lower salary than other nursing specialties
  • Sometimes heavy workload if you’re the only school nurse on staff
  • Lack of recognition as an important part of the school community
  • Little administrative help with forms and paperwork
  • Less opportunity to interact with other healthcare professionals
  • Responsibility to make potentially life-saving decisions without oversight
  • Potential to be assigned across multiple schools
  • Likelihood of dealing with the messiness of vomiting, colds, lice, and other common childhood health issues

Work Environment

School nurses serve as an important link among students, teachers, coaches, and parents. This requires effective communication and collaboration.

In addition to handling everyday injuries and illnesses, you’ll work to prevent a student’s medical issue from interfering with their ability to learn.

“If the student also has educational issues in addition to the medical issues, then the nurse will be on the IEP (individualized education program) team to help manage the medical accommodations,” Hunter says.

In addition to handling everyday injuries and illnesses, you’ll work to prevent a student’s medical issue from interfering with their ability to learn.

On a broader level, a school nurse contributes to the school environment by educating staff and students on a range of health care issues, including infection control, recognizing signs of distress, and first-aid.

Elementary School vs Middle School vs High School

While many of your duties will be the same no matter the school, elementary, middle, and high school students can present different challenges. “Those are three totally different jobs!” says Hunter.

Here’s a look at responsibilities that can differ by age.

Elementary school

  • Address issues affecting proper growth
  • Coordinate medication and treatment for chronic conditions
  • Handle a higher number of bumps, bruises, and common conditions like stomachaches and fever than likely at older grades

Middle school

  • Address issues related to physical and emotional bullying
  • Deal with more complex behavioral issues
  • Identify and educate students and staff about the dangers of fads like TikTok challenges

High school

  • Less hands-on care for chronic conditions like diabetes since teenagers can often manage on their own
  • Address issues related to sexual activity, including STDs, date rape, and teen pregnancy
  • Provide alcohol and drug education and identify substance abuse

Salary

According to the BLS, the annual median salary for RNs is $75,330, with those in the lowest 10% of the profession earning $53,410 and those in the top 10% making $116,230.

Annual Median Salary for RNs:

$75,330

While the BLS doesn’t report salaries by specialty for RNs, earning a BSN and certification may increase your salary potential and help you stand out among job candidates, especially in a field that values advanced education. Where you work, your experience, and other factors also can influence your salary.

Job Outlook

Pursuing a nursing career may be a wise investment of your time and money. The BLS predicts 9% growth in jobs for nurses from 2020 to 2030, slightly above the average rate for all occupations.

Your employment opportunities as a school nurse will vary depending on the school districts in your area. While some districts hire nurses part time and pay lower salaries, others employ nurses as part of their teachers’ union and pay them on a scale that aligns with teacher salaries, Hunter says.


anna giorgi

Written and reported by:

Anna Giorgi

Contributing Writer

emily hunter

With professional insight from:

Emily Hunter, BSN, RN, CSN

Certified School Nurse and founder and author of Your Favorite School Nurse blog

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: Information for School Nurses

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease or CMT is a progressive neurological disorder causes damage to nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord.

Fast facts:

  • CMT is both an inherited genetic disorder that can run in families and also a spontaneously occurring condition.
  • Approximately 3 million or more people across the world suffer from CMT.
  • There are approximately 100 genetic mutations of CMT known currently but more research is being done.
  • CMT can present at any age and in all genders.
  • CMT is a type of muscular dystrophy
  • CMT does not affect the patient’s ability to think and learn although it can create anxiety and emotional concerns which can lead to difficulty learning.
  • CMT is not fatal in most cases although the progressive disability can be extremely detrimental.
  • Onset of symptoms is usually noted in adolescence or early adulthood, occasionally in mid-adulthood.

Symptoms

  • Muscle pain
  • Muscle weakness
  • Frequent tripping, ankle sprains, general clumsiness
  • Hand tremors
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Drop foot
  • Burning, shooting, stabbing, stinging nerve pain
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Numbness
  • Curled fingers
  • Muscle atrophy of legs and/or arms
  • Curled toes
  • High arches or flat feet (no arches)
  • Difficulty with fine motor skills
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Rare symptoms include breathing difficulties caused by respiratory muscle weakness, swallowing or speaking difficulties, neurogenic bladder, hearing loss, optic neuropathy and vocal cord paralysis.

Diagnosis

  • Genetic testing in-utero if family history is known. This requires CVS testing (amniocentesis).
  • Genetic testing through blood or saliva for the patient.
  • Nerve conduction study to assess the relationship of the nerves to the muscles
  • Electromyogram
  • Review of symptoms and physical exam by neurologist including sensation exams, muscle strength assessment, visualization or limbs and feet.

Treatment

  • Physical and occupational therapy
  • Hearing aids for hearing loss
  • Pain medications for more severe pain
  • Supportive aids such as braces, walkers or wheelchair
  • Surgery to repair malformed joints
  • Assisted ventilation for those with breathing difficulties or sleep apnea (CPAP), in more severe cases patients may need to depend on a ventilator for respiratory support due to muscle weakness.

Managing CMT in a school setting

  • Student should be receiving PT and OT – sometimes at school
  • Student should be educated on safety measures at school such as navigating hallways, playground, cafeteria
  • Activities such as safety using the bathroom should be accommodated
  • PE class should be modified for the student to avoid competition and strength training and focus more on the recreation aspect. Depending on students health status student could also be excused from PE.
  • Consider 1:1 aid for assistance with ADL’s and navigation of daily activities at school.

504 accommodation suggestions

  • May receive physical therapy and/or occupational therapy at school
  • 1:1 aid to assist with eating, using the bathroom, ambulation, general safety.
  • Student will use wheelchair, walker, or supportive devices in school.
  • Modified PE to accommodate student’s abilities: student should not be required to compete or progress in activities but be permitted to participate as their abilities allow for recreational purposes.
  • Additional textbooks provided to prevent transport of books to home or changing classes
  • Individuals with CMT may have difficulty with dine motor skills causing difficulty with handwriting and using a keyboard. Student should be granted extra time to complete tests and classwork, and potentially the option to take tests and do classwork orally as opposed to written.
  • Elevator access if available
  • When possible, student’s needs should be taken into consideration when creating class schedule ie: student assigned to classes that are closer together to minimize travel throughout the building.
  • Student should be seated in the classroom in a location that is conducive to their ability to navigate the classroom.
  • Emergency evacuation plan should accommodate the student. A school staff member should be assigned to the student in case of emergency (if no 1:1 support). A “safe room” should be established in case student is unable to be evacuated and this information should be readily available to the fire department and rescue teams.
  • School field trips should be evaluated for safety concerns for the student ie: dropping student off at front door of the destination, ensuring that location is handicapped accessible, having a wheelchair lift for the bus, ensure that all staff present on the trip are aware of student’s needs.
  • Take each student’s case individually and tailor additional accommodations to the student’s needs.

CMT and COVID risk: CMT does put the patient at higher risk for COVID related complications, especially those with breathing problems such as a weak diaphragm or reduced lung capacity. Click this link for some general guidelines.

CMT Fact sheet from MDA.org

School Accommodation Recommendations from MDA.org

Some of the websites I’ve used to gather this information are:

CMTAUSA.ORG

MDA.ORG

Hopkinsmedicine.org

Tales of School Nursing

Do you have a funny story to tell about being a school nurse? What are some of your best/funniest complaints that you’ve heard as a school nurse? I would like to include your stories in a piece about the fun of being a school nurse. Obviously no identifying details or names should be included to protect privacy. In my world anything goes – you can swear or be gross. We are nurses, nothing should scare us!

Here’s the form

School Nurse Hacks

Hey school nurses, after a Facebook post about giving sugar to relieve (non urgent) allergic reactions, I want to write a post discussing unconventional tips and tricks that people have used that you wouldn’t think of or that others don’t readily know.

Do you know a magical cure for lice that we don’t know about already? Perhaps a special way to relieve bruises or scratches? Miracle cures for tummy aches? Fancy methods to get a ring unstuck from a finger? Something your grandma always did to fix things? miracle splinter removal cures (I know a few of these myself after Splintergate 2000 happened in my house) Anything you can think of let me know!

Bonus points if you have any scientific evidence to back your methods. I will also give credit of course for those that want credit for their tricks.

Here’s the form

Welcome to The Tooth Fairy Club!

What a fun age: you go to first grade, start learning big things, get real homework, and teeth are falling out all over the place!

As we all know, losing baby teeth is a normal part of life. Some kids look forward to it and others are afraid. Here are some tips and tricks for dealing with lost teeth at school:

  1. Don’t panic: There is nothing to worry about when dealing with losing baby teeth. Often kids get upset over loose teeth because they aren’t used to that discomfort and don’t understand. Many people panic over a small amount of blood – understand that mouths and lips are very vascular and bleed easily but a regular every day tooth falling out is not dangerous.
  2. Saltwater rinse: mix 8 ounces of warm water with about a teaspoon of salt and have them swish for about 30 seconds and spit. Repeat this a few times. This will clean the area and also help with some of the pain if they have any.
  3. Gauze: most lost teeth bleed a little. Unfortunately you might also get the ones that bleed a lot! You should have some 2×2 gauze handy (sterile would be best but non-sterile is ok too), or cotton dental rolls for the child to bite down on to provide pressure to the area. A tea bag also works really well for this (as long as they don’t have an allergy) – soak a black tea bag in warm water for a minute or so and have the child lightly bite down on it. The tannins in the black tea help the blood to coagulate at the site.
  4. Educate staff: regular loose teeth and lost teeth are not a major emergency. Loose teeth might bleed or hurt before they come out and that is totally normal. There isn’t a whole lot one can do to make that better aside from wiggling the tooth, saltwater rinses and Motrin or Tylenol if it’s really painful. Lost teeth and loose teeth can often be managed in the classroom without a visit to the nurse but a phone call to the nurse to check in on the event is warranted.
  5. Save the tooth: The kids want the tooth fairy to visit so try and save the tooth for them in a tooth holder, zip lock bag, or small envelope. If the tooth is lost or swallowed (happens all the time, nothing you can do about it as it won’t hurt the child) no worries, the school nurse can give the child a receipt for the tooth fairy as proof that the tooth got lost and isn’t available.
  6. Celebrate: I’m making a bulletin board this year for the Tooth Fairy Club, and making a stock of certificates to welcome the kids into the Tooth Fairy Club – get yours here: I also have stickers for them if they want one (other stickers).

When is a lost tooth an emergency?

  1. If a permanent tooth is knocked out: this is a medical emergency. If the tooth is intact, place it back in the socket gently and carefully push it back in to place. Be careful not to touch the root area – only handle the crown or outside part of the tooth. Have the person gently bite down on gauze to hold it in place and seek emergency dental care. Don’t try to put a baby tooth back in.
  2. If a tooth gets broken but not knocked out: Try to save the pieces if possible. Place the pieces in milk or saline. Rinse the mouth with warm water and call the dentist right away for evaluation.

Do you have any tips or tricks to deal with teeth coming out? Let me know if you have any great ideas!


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